Describing Nouns Using Adjectives

Many languages, including English, distinguish between adjectives, which qualify nouns and pronouns, and adverbs, which modify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs. Not all languages have exactly this distinction and many languages, including English, have words that can function as both. For example, in English fast is an adjective in “a fast car” (where it qualifies the noun car), but an adverb in “he drove fast” (where it modifies the verb drove).

In Dutch and German, adjectives and adverbs are usually identical in form and many grammarians do not make the distinction, but patterns of inflection can suggest a difference:
Eine kluge neue Idee. A clever new idea.Eine klug ausgereifte Idee. A cleverly developed idea.
Whether these are distinct parts of speech or distinct usages of the same part of speech is a question of analysis. It is worth noting that while German linguistic terminology distinguishes adverbiale from adjektivische Formen, school German refers to both as Eigenschaftswörter.
Source: Wikipedia

Year Five 2014

Year Five have been learning about Narratives. A Narrative tells a story and is mainly used to entertainmotivate or teach. They also aim to get the attention of the reader and maintain their interest.

Narrative Structure

  • Orientation – usually introduces the main characters, the setting and provides some idea of what is to follow (when, where, who or what).
  • Complication – a problem that sets off a series of events.
  • Series of Events – triggered by the complication.
  • Resolution – climax or ending where the problem is resolved.
  • Coda – it makes explicit how the character(s) has/have changes and what has been learned from the experience.

Inspired by the Narrative in One Small Island, we have been writing our own interesting orientations. We have also been practising using a range of adjectives in our orientations.

There are many different types of adjectives:

  • Opinion

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Nouns in the Possessive

Nouns and noun phrases; Source: Wikipedia
The possessive form of an English noun, or more generally a noun phrase, is made by suffixing a morpheme which is represented orthographically as ‘s (the letter s preceded by an apostrophe), and is pronounced in the same way as the regular English plural ending -(e)s: namely as /ɨz/ when following a sibilant sound (/s/, /z/, /ʃ/, /ʒ/, /tʃ/ or /dʒ/), as /s/ when following any other voiceless consonant (/p/, /t/, /k/, /f/ or /θ/), and as /z/ otherwise. For example:

Mitch /mɪtʃ/ has the possessive Mitch’s /ˈmɪtʃɨz/
luck /lʌk/ has the possessive luck’s /lʌks/
man /mæn/ has the possessive man’s /mænz/

Note the distinction from the plural in nouns whose plural is irregular: man’s vs. men, wife’s vs. wives, etc.
In the case of plural nouns ending in -s, and in the case of certain other nouns ending in -s, the possessive is indicated in writing just by adding an apostrophe, and is not indicated in the pronunciation:

the possessive of cats is cats’, both words being pronounced /kæts/
the possessive of Jesus is most commonly Jesus’, both words being pronounced /ˈdʒiːzəs/

Singular nouns ending in -s can also form a possessive regularly by adding -‘s, as in Charles’s /ˈtʃɑː(r)lzɨz/. The Chicago Manual of Style recommends this more modern style, while stating that adding just an apostrophe (e.g. Jesus’) is also correct.[1] The Elements of Style and the Canadian Press Stylebook prefer the form in -s’s with the exception of classical and Biblical proper names (Jesus’ teachings, Augustus’ guards) and common phrases that do not take the extra s (e.g. “for goodness’ sake”).[2][3] For more on style guidance for this and other issues relating to the construction of possessives in English, see Possessive apostrophe.
More generally, the -‘s morpheme can be attached finally to noun phrases, even if the head noun does not end the phrase. For example, the phrase the king of Spain can form the possessive the king of Spain’s, and the phrase the man we saw yesterday can form the man we saw yesterday’s. This property is taken as evidence that -‘s is a clitic rather than a case ending.

Terribly Write

If this makes no sense to you, it’s probably because you understand how to form the possessive of a plural noun and the writer for does not:

fp mccallss

The family name’s McCall; the writer probably knew that. What the writer didn’t know was how to form the possessive of McCalls. Here’s a hint: Just add a freakin’ apostrophe!

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Plural Nouns – Possessive

The plural, Source: Wikipedia
In many languages, is one of the values of the grammatical category of number. Plural forms of nouns typically denote a quantity other than the default quantity represented by a noun, which is generally one (the form that represents this default quantity is said to be of singular number). Most commonly, therefore, plurals are used to denote two or more of something, although they may also denote fractional, zero or negative amounts. An example of a plural is the English word cats, which corresponds to the singular cat.
Plurality is a linguistic universal[citation needed], represented variously among the languages as a separate word, an affix, or by other morphological indications such as stress or implicit markers/context.
Words of other types, such as verbs, adjectives and pronouns, also frequently have distinct plural forms, which are used in agreement with the number of their associated nouns.
Some languages also have a dual (denoting exactly two of something) or other systems of number categories. However in English and many other languages, singular and plural are the only grammatical numbers, except for possible remnants of the dual in pronouns such as both and either.

Nouns, Plural and Possessive

Source: Wikipedia
Possessive determiners constitute a sub-class of determiners which modify a noun by attributing possession (or other sense of belonging) to someone or something. They are also known as possessive adjectives.
Examples in English include possessive forms of the personal pronouns, namely my, your, his, her, its, our and their, but excluding the forms such as mine and ours that are used as possessive pronouns and not as determiners. Possessive determiners may also be taken to include possessive forms made from nouns, from other pronouns and from noun phrases, such as John’s, the girl’s, somebody’s, the king of Spain’s, when used to modify a following noun.
In many languages, possessive determiners are subject to agreement with the noun they modify, as in the French mon, ma, mes, respectively the masculine singular, feminine singular and plural forms corresponding to the English my.


Definitions of nouns:
Source: Wikipedia
Nouns have sometimes been defined in terms of the grammatical categories to which they are subject (classed by gender, inflected for case and number). Such definitions tend to be language-specific, since nouns do not have the same categories in all languages.
Nouns are frequently defined, particularly in informal contexts, in terms of their semantic properties (their meanings). Nouns are described as words that refer to a person, place, thing, event, substance, quality, quantity, etc. However this type of definition has been criticized by contemporary linguists as being uninformative.[6]
Linguists often prefer to define nouns (and other lexical categories) in terms of their formal properties. These include morphological information, such as what prefixes or suffixes they take, and also their syntax – how they combine with other words and expressions of particular types. Such definitions may nonetheless still be language-specific, since syntax as well as morphology varies between languages. For example, in English it might be noted that nouns are words that can co-occur with definite articles (as stated at the start of this article), but this would not apply in Russian, which has no definite articles.
There have been several attempts, sometimes controversial, to produce a stricter definition of nouns on a semantic basis. Some of these are referenced in the Further reading section below.
Forms of nouns:

A noun in its basic form will often consist of a single stem, as in the case of the English nouns cat, man, table and so on. In many languages nouns can also be formed from other nouns and from words of other types through morphological processes, often involving the addition of prefixes and suffixes. Examples in English are the verbal nouns formed from verbs by the addition of -ing, nouns formed from verbs using other suffixes such as organization and discovery, agent nouns formed from verbs usually with the suffix -er or -or, as in actor and worker, feminine forms of nouns such as actress, lioness, nouns formed from adjectives such as happiness, and many other types.
Nouns may be identical in form to words that belong to other parts of speech, often as a result of conversion (or just through coincidence). For example the English word hit can be both a noun and a verb, and the German Arm/arm can be a noun or an adjective. In such cases the word is said to represent two or more lexemes.
In many languages nouns inflect (change their form) for number, and sometimes for case. Inflection for number usually involves forming plural forms, such as cats and children (see English plural), and sometimes other forms such as duals, which are used in some languages to refer to exactly two of something. Inflection for case involves changing the form of a noun depending on its syntactic function – languages such as Latin, Russian and Finnish have extensive case systems, with different forms for nominatives (used principally for verb subjects), accusatives (used especially for direct objects), genitives (used to express possession and similar relationships) and so on. The only real vestige of the case system on nouns in Modern English is the “Saxon genitive”, where ‘s is added to a noun to form a possessive.