Making a Paper Proposal

Tim's Free English Lesson Plans

Proposal2

This is a lesson plan designed to introduce students to the proposal writing task featured in the CAE writing paper. Below are links to the prezi, the handout, the task and a model answer.

Proposal Task – referred to in the prezi as page 189

Prezi

Proposal Handout

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A Conditional Aspect…

The conditional mood is a grammatical mood used to express a proposition whose validity is dependent on some condition, possibly counterfactual. It thus refers to a distinct verb form that expresses a hypothetical state of affairs, or an uncertain event, that is contingent on another set of circumstances. An example of a verb in the conditional mood is the French aimerait, meaning “would love” (from the verb aimer, “to love”).

Conditional mood often refers to an inflected verb form, like the example just given. However the term is also sometimes used in relation to an analytic construction that performs the same function. Thus a construction like the English would love will sometimes be described as representing the conditional mood. In some informal contexts, such as language teaching, it may be called the “conditional tense”.

The conditional mood is generally found in the independent clause (apodosis) of a conditional sentence, namely the clause that expresses the result of the condition, rather than the dependent clause (protasis) expressing the condition. The protasis will often use a different verb form, depending on the grammatical rules of the language in question, such as a past tense form or the subjunctive mood. This is exemplified by the English sentence “If you loved me you would support me” – here the conditional would support appears in the apodosis, while the protasis (the condition clause) uses instead the simple past form loved.

Not every conditional sentence involves the conditional mood (and some languages do not have a conditional mood at all). For example, in the sentence “If I win, he will be disappointed”, the conditional circumstance is expressed using the future marker will. Also a conditional verb form may have other uses besides expressing conditionality; for example the English would construction may also be used for past habitual action (“When I was young I would happily walk three miles to school every day”), or with future-in-the-past meaning.

Conditional mood can be denoted by the glossing abbreviation COND. Some languages distinguish more than one conditional mood; the East African language Hadza, for example, has a potential conditional expressing possibility, and a veridical conditional expressing certainty.

This article describes the formation of the conditional forms of verbs in certain languages. For fuller details of the construction of conditional sentences, see Conditional sentence (and for English specifically, English conditional sentences).
Source: Wikipedia

Learning the Second Conditional with FRIENDS

If I asked for the money, I would give it back.
If they gave me the money, I would pay it back.
If they didn’t lend me the money, I would be angry.
If I didn’t pay the money back, they would be unhappy.

He would be unhappy if I didn’t lend the money.
He would be angry if I didn’t lend the money.
She wouldn’t pay it back if I lent her the money.

Friends…

Second conditional

The Second Conditional is used to talk about ‘impossible’ situations.

If we were in London today, we would be able to go to the concert in Hyde Park.


If I had millions dollars, I’d give a lot to charity.


If there were no hungry people in this world, it would be a much better place.


If everyone had clean water to drink, there would be a lot less disease.

Note that after I / he/ she /it we often use the subjunctive form ‘were’ and not ‘was’. (Some people think that ‘were’ is the only ‘correct’ form but other people think ‘was’ is equally ‘correct’ .)


If she were happy in her job, she wouldn’t be looking for another one.


If I lived in Japan, I’d have sushi every day.


If they were to enter our market, we’d have big problems.

Note the form ‘If I were you’ which is often used to give advice.

If I were you, I’d look for a new place to live.


If I were you, I’d go back to school and get more qualifications.

The Second Conditional is also used to talk about ‘unlikely’ situations.

If I went to China, I’d visit the Great Wall.


If I was the President, I’d reduce taxes.


If you were in my position, you’d understand.

Note that the choice between the first and the second conditional is often a question of the speaker’s attitude rather than of facts. Compare these examples. Otto thinks these things are possible, Peter doesn’t.

Otto – If I win the lottery, I’ll buy a big house.


Peter – If I won the lottery, I’d buy a big house.


Otto – If I get promoted, I’ll throw a big party.


Peter – If I got promoted, I’d throw a big party.


Otto – If my team win the Cup, I’ll buy champagne for everybody.


Peter – If my team won the Cup, I’d buy champagne for everybody.
Source: learnrealenglish.com

Hercules Learns English

As is typical for many languages, full conditional sentences in English consist of a condition clause specifying a condition or hypothesis, and a consequence clause or apodosis specifying what follows from that condition. The condition clause is a dependent clause, most commonly headed by the conjunction if, while the consequence is contained in the main clause of the sentence. Either clause may appear first.

Different types of conditional sentences (depending largely on whether they refer to a past, present or future time frame) require the use of particular verb forms (tenses and moods) to express the condition and the consequence. In English language teaching the most common patterns are referred to as first conditional, second conditional and third conditional; there is also a zero conditional and mixed conditional.
Source Wikipedia

Describing Nouns Using Adjectives

Many languages, including English, distinguish between adjectives, which qualify nouns and pronouns, and adverbs, which modify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs. Not all languages have exactly this distinction and many languages, including English, have words that can function as both. For example, in English fast is an adjective in “a fast car” (where it qualifies the noun car), but an adverb in “he drove fast” (where it modifies the verb drove).

In Dutch and German, adjectives and adverbs are usually identical in form and many grammarians do not make the distinction, but patterns of inflection can suggest a difference:
Eine kluge neue Idee. A clever new idea.Eine klug ausgereifte Idee. A cleverly developed idea.
Whether these are distinct parts of speech or distinct usages of the same part of speech is a question of analysis. It is worth noting that while German linguistic terminology distinguishes adverbiale from adjektivische Formen, school German refers to both as Eigenschaftswörter.
Source: Wikipedia

Year Five 2014

Year Five have been learning about Narratives. A Narrative tells a story and is mainly used to entertainmotivate or teach. They also aim to get the attention of the reader and maintain their interest.

Narrative Structure

  • Orientation – usually introduces the main characters, the setting and provides some idea of what is to follow (when, where, who or what).
  • Complication – a problem that sets off a series of events.
  • Series of Events – triggered by the complication.
  • Resolution – climax or ending where the problem is resolved.
  • Coda – it makes explicit how the character(s) has/have changes and what has been learned from the experience.

Inspired by the Narrative in One Small Island, we have been writing our own interesting orientations. We have also been practising using a range of adjectives in our orientations.

There are many different types of adjectives:

  • Opinion

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