Adult English Teaching

Teaching English as a Foreign Language:

Teaching English as a foreign language (TEFL) involves teaching adults and children whose first or main language is not English. This can be done either in the UK or abroad and the students may be learning English for either business or leisure reasons.

Teaching English to speakers of other languages (TESOL) is also a widely used term and is used to mostly mean the same thing as TEFL. TESOL is also sometimes specifically used though to refer to teaching English to people who are living in the UK but who do not speak English as a first language. These students are most commonly refugees and immigrants and need to learn the language in order to help them settle into the society of the country. Their courses are often government funded.

Teaching English as a second language (TESL) or teaching English as an additional language (TEAL) may also be terms that are used but they generally all refer to the same thing: teaching English to someone whose native language is not English.

Teachers of English as a foreign language can work in a variety of settings with different age ranges. This can include commercial language schools, schools and institutions of further and higher education throughout the UK and overseas. Some may also teach in industry, while others are self-employed. Classes are usually taught in English, even with beginners.

Typical work activities
Teachers of English as a foreign language use a range of course books and materials and also a variety of audiovisual aids. There is a strong emphasis on dialogue and role-playing, but more formal exercises, language games and literature are also used.

The content of lessons varies depending on the reason why the students are learning English, e.g. whether it is for business use for adults, school work for children, etc. The aim of each lesson is to encourage the students to communicate with each other using the structures and vocabulary they have learnt, and to improve the four basic language skills: listening; speaking; reading; and writing.

Typical tasks that may be carried out include:

classroom management;
planning, preparing and delivering lessons to a range of classes and age groups;
preparing and setting tests, examination papers, and exercises;
marking and providing appropriate feedback on oral and written work;
devising, writing and producing new materials, including audio and visual resources;
organising and getting involved in social and cultural activities such as sports competitions, school parties, dinners and excursions;
attending and contributing to training sessions;
participating in marketing events for the language school;
preparing information for inspection visits and other quality assurance exercises;
freelance teaching on a one-to-one basis;
basic administration, such as keeping student registers and attendance records.

Korea Open Class

Using Adjective Clauses (#1)

Adjective clauses (relative clauses) are like “sentences
inside sentences.” The “job” of adjective clauses is to
modify (describe, identify, make specific) the noun
phrases that they follow. In their full forms, adjective
clauses have several parts: a relative pronoun (or, in
some cases, another kind of connecting word), a subject,
and a predicate (a verb and, often, other types of
words which follow it).

In adjective clauses, the relative pronoun is a kind of
connecting word: it joins the information in the clause
to the noun phrase that it follows. Without the adjective
clause, the meaning of the modified noun phrase (and
of the sentence) is unclear and incomplete.

Examples (full forms):

I know a person who / that can help you.
I know a person who(m) / that you can help.
I know a person whose advice I can trust.
I know a person to whom I can refer you. /
I know a person who(m) / that I can refer you to.

I want a car that / which gets good gas mileage.
I can’t afford the car that / which I really want.

Dave’s ESL Cafe has tons of resources/articles related to teaching in Korea.

Keep it Simple

Simple present, third person singular

he, she, it: in the third person singular the verb always ends in -s:
he wants, she needs, he gives, she thinks.

Negative and question forms use DOES (=the third person of the auxiliary’DO’) + the infinitive of the verb.
He wants. Does he want? He does not want.

Verbs ending in -y : the third person changes the -y to -ies:
fly flies, cry cries

Exception: if there is a vowel before the -y:
play plays, pray prays

Add -es to verbs ending in:-ss, -x, -sh, -ch:
he passes, she catches, he fixes, it pushes
See also Verbs -‘Regular verbs in the simple present’, and ‘Be, do & have’


1. Third person singular with s or -es

He goes to school every morning.
She understands English.
It mixes the sand and the water.
He tries very hard.
She enjoys playing the piano.
2. Simple present, form

Example: to think, present simple

Affirmative Interrogative Negative
I think

Do I think ?

I do not think.

You think

Do you think?

You don’t think.

he, she, it thinks

Does he, she, it think?

He, she, it doesn’t think.

we think

Do we think?

We don’t think.

you think

Do you think?

You don’t think.

The simple present is used:

to express habits, general truths, repeated actions or unchanging situations, emotions and wishes:
I smoke (habit); I work in London (unchanging situation); London is a large city (general truth)

to give instructions or directions:
You walk for two hundred metres, then you turn left.

to express fixed arrangements, present or future:
Your exam starts at 09.00

to express future time, after some conjunctions: after, when, before, as soon as, until:
He’ll give it to you when you come next Saturday.
BE CAREFUL! The simple present is not used to express actions happening now. See Present Continuous.


For habits
He drinks tea at breakfast.
She only eats fish.
They watch television regularly.

For repeated actions or events
We catch the bus every morning.
It rains every afternoon in the hot season.
They drive to Monaco every summer.

For general truths
Water freezes at zero degrees.
The Earth revolves around the Sun.
Her mother is Peruvian.

For instructions or directions
Open the packet and pour the contents into hot water.
You take the No.6 bus to Watney and then the No.10 to Bedford.

For fixed arrangements
His mother arrives tomorrow.
Our holiday starts on the 26th March

With future constructions
She’ll see you before she leaves.
We’ll give it to her when she arrives.

Show Me ESOL

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Yahoo’s Mistake

Home HomeApostrophe UseChairmanMessageForumMore Problems!LinksExamples
The rules concerning the use of apostrophes in written English are very simple:

1. They are used to denote a missing letter or letters, for example:

I can’t instead of I cannot
I don’t instead of I do not
it’s instead of it is or it has
2. They are used to denote possession, for example:

the dog’s bone
the company’s logo
Jones’s bakery (but Joneses’ bakery if owned by more than one Jones)
This applies to all nouns, so the correct versions are Jesus’s disciples, Keats’s poems and so on.

Please note that “Its”, which is usually used as a possessive adjective (like “our”, “his” etc), does not take an apostrophe:

the dog ate its bone and we ate our dinner
… however, if there are two or more dogs, companies or Joneses in our example, the apostrophe comes after the ‘s’:

the dogs’ bones
the companies’ logos
Joneses’ bakeries
3. Apostrophes are NEVER ever used to denote plurals! Common examples of such abuse (all seen in real life!) are:

Banana’s for sale which of course should read Bananas for sale
Menu’s printed to order which should read Menus printed to order
MOT’s at this garage which should read MOTs at this garage
1000’s of bargains here! which should read 1000s of bargains here!
New CD’s just in! which should read New CDs just in!
Buy your Xmas tree’s here! which should read Buy your Xmas trees here!

Note: Special care must be taken over the use of “your” and “you’re” as they sound the same but are used quite differently:

your is possessive as in this is your pen
you’re is short for “you are” as in you’re coming over to my house.


Terribly Write

An apostrophe on the Yahoo! front page has been incorrectly displayed — unless Delta is more than one airline; then it’s correct and I’m a ‘mistake blogger’:

fp airlines apost

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Phrasal what?

The term phrasal verb is commonly applied to two or three distinct but related constructions in English: a verb and a particle and/or a preposition co-occur forming a single semantic unit. This semantic unit cannot be understood based upon the meanings of the individual parts in isolation, but rather it must be taken as a whole. In other words, the meaning is non-compositional and thus unpredictable. Phrasal verbs that include a preposition are known as prepositional verbs and phrasal verbs that include a particle are also known as particle verbs. Additional alternative terms for phrasal verb are compound verb, verb-adverb combination, verb-particle construction, two-part word/verb, and three-part word/verb (depending on the number of particles), and multi-word verb.
Source: Wikipedia

Grammatically speaking, the Present perfect tense

Present Perfect


[has/have + past participle]


You have seen that movie many times.
Have you seen that movie many times?
You have not seen that movie many times.
Complete List of Present Perfect Forms

USE 1 Unspecified Time Before Now

We use the Present Perfect to say that an action happened at an unspecified time before now. The exact time is not important. You CANNOT use the Present Perfect with specific time expressions such as: yesterday, one year ago, last week, when I was a child, when I lived in Japan, at that moment, that day, one day, etc. We CAN use the Present Perfect with unspecific expressions such as: ever, never, once, many times, several times, before, so far, already, yet, etc.


I have seen that movie twenty times.
I think I have met him once before.
There have been many earthquakes in California.
People have traveled to the Moon.
People have not traveled to Mars.
Have you read the book yet?
Nobody has ever climbed that mountain.
A: Has there ever been a war in the United States?
B: Yes, there has been a war in the United States.
How Do You Actually Use the Present Perfect?

The concept of “unspecified time” can be very confusing to English learners. It is best to associate Present Perfect with the following topics:

TOPIC 1 Experience

You can use the Present Perfect to describe your experience. It is like saying, “I have the experience of…” You can also use this tense to say that you have never had a certain experience. The Present Perfect is NOT used to describe a specific event.


I have been to France.
This sentence means that you have had the experience of being in France. Maybe you have been there once, or several times.
I have been to France three times.
You can add the number of times at the end of the sentence.
I have never been to France.
This sentence means that you have not had the experience of going to France.
I think I have seen that movie before.
He has never traveled by train.
Joan has studied two foreign languages.
A: Have you ever met him?
B: No, I have not met him.
TOPIC 2 Change Over Time

We often use the Present Perfect to talk about change that has happened over a period of time.


You have grown since the last time I saw you.
The government has become more interested in arts education.
Japanese has become one of the most popular courses at the university since the Asian studies program was established.
My English has really improved since I moved to Australia.
TOPIC 3 Accomplishments

We often use the Present Perfect to list the accomplishments of individuals and humanity. You cannot mention a specific time.


Man has walked on the Moon.
Our son has learned how to read.
Doctors have cured many deadly diseases.
Scientists have split the atom.
TOPIC 4 An Uncompleted Action You Are Expecting

We often use the Present Perfect to say that an action which we expected has not happened. Using the Present Perfect suggests that we are still waiting for the action to happen.


James has not finished his homework yet.
Susan hasn’t mastered Japanese, but she can communicate.
Bill has still not arrived.
The rain hasn’t stopped.
TOPIC 5 Multiple Actions at Different Times

We also use the Present Perfect to talk about several different actions which have occurred in the past at different times. Present Perfect suggests the process is not complete and more actions are possible.


The army has attacked that city five times.
I have had four quizzes and five tests so far this semester.
We have had many major problems while working on this project.
She has talked to several specialists about her problem, but nobody knows why she is sick.
Time Expressions with Present Perfect

When we use the Present Perfect it means that something has happened at some point in our lives before now. Remember, the exact time the action happened is not important.

Sometimes, we want to limit the time we are looking in for an experience. We can do this with expressions such as: in the last week, in the last year, this week, this month, so far, up to now, etc.


Have you been to Mexico in the last year?
I have seen that movie six times in the last month.
They have had three tests in the last week.
She graduated from university less than three years ago. She has worked for three different companies so far.
My car has broken down three times this week.

“Last year” and “in the last year” are very different in meaning. “Last year” means the year before now, and it is considered a specific time which requires Simple Past. “In the last year” means from 365 days ago until now. It is not considered a specific time, so it requires Present Perfect.


I went to Mexico last year.
I went to Mexico in the calendar year before this one.
I have been to Mexico in the last year.
I have been to Mexico at least once at some point between 365 days ago and now.
USE 2 Duration From the Past Until Now (Non-Continuous Verbs)

With Non-Continuous Verbs and non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, we use the Present Perfect to show that something started in the past and has continued up until now. “For five minutes,” “for two weeks,” and “since Tuesday” are all durations which can be used with the Present Perfect.


I have had a cold for two weeks.
She has been in England for six months.
Mary has loved chocolate since she was a little girl.
Although the above use of Present Perfect is normally limited to Non-Continuous Verbs and non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, the words “live,” “work,” “teach,” and “study” are sometimes used in this way even though they are NOT Non-Continuous Verbs.


The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.


You have only seen that movie one time.
Have you only seen that movie one time?


Many tourists have visited that castle. Active
That castle has been visited by many tourists. Passive.